CS 410 Operating SystemsHomework 01
Review Questions (6 points each)1.2 Define the two main categories of processor registers.1.3 In general terms, what are the four distinct actions that a machine instruction can specify?1.4 What is an interrupt?1.5 How are multiple interrupts dealt with?1.10 In general, what are the strategies for exploiting spatial locality and temporal locality?
Problems (10 points each)1.2 The program execution of Figure 1.4 is described in the text using six steps. Expand thisdescription to show the use of the MAR and MBR.
1.3 Consider a hypothetical 32-bit microprocessor having 32-bit instructions composed of twofields. The first byte contains the opcode and the remainder an immediate operand or anoperand address.a. What is the maximum directly addressable memory capacity (in bytes)?b. Discuss the impact on the system speed if the microprocessor bus has
1. a 32-bit local address bus and a 16-bit local data bus, or2. a 16-bit local address bus and a 16-bit local data bus.
c. How many bits are needed for the program counter and the instruction register?
1.5 Consider a 32-bit microprocessor , with a 16-bit external data bus, driven by an 8-MHz inputclock. Assume that this microprocessor has a bus cycle whose minimum duration equals fourinput clock cycles. What is the maximum data transfer rate across the bus that thismicroprocessor can sustain in bytes/s? To increase its performance, would it be better to makeits external data bus 32 bits or to double the external clock frequency supplied to themicroprocessor? State any other assumptions you make and explain. Hint: Determine thenumber of bytes that can be transferred per bus cycle.
1.7 In virtually all systems that include DMA modules, DMA access to main memory is givenhigher priority than processor access to main memory. Why?
1.8 A DMA module is transferring characters to main memory from an external devicetransmitting at 9600 bits per second (bps). The processor can fetch instructions at the rate of 1million instructions per second. By how much will the processor be slowed down due to theDMA activity?
1.10 Consider the following code:
for (i = 0; i < 20; i++)for (j = 0; j < 10; j++)
a[i] = a[i] * j
a. Give one example of the spatial locality in the code.b. Give one example of the temporal locality in the code.
1.14 Suppose a stack is to be used by the processor to manage procedure calls and returns.Can the program counter be eliminated by using the top of the stack as a program counter?
SUBMISSIONSubmit a DOCX or PDF document through Western Online with the answers to the questions orproblems typing the corresponding numbers and questions (or at least the numbers) in boldand in the proper order before your answers.Use a different font color for all the numbers and questions (or at least for the numbers), thanthe color used for your answers. You can, as an example, use a blue color for all the numbersand questions, and black font for all your answers. The idea is to make the grading processeasy to follow and faster. Points will be deducted if you do not follow these guidelines.
In virtually all systems that include DMA modules, DMA access to main memory is given higher priority than processor access to main memory. Why? Because the processor has its own processor, which will take care of the time-critical tasks for them.
The reason why DMA access is given higher priority than processor access in most systems that include DMA modules is because the former’s processor has its own memory, which will take care of the time-critical tasks for it. In contrast, the processor of a CPU must share its main memory with other processes running on the system.
DMA modules have their own processor, which will take care of the time-critical tasks for them. The DMA module uses a special protocol to communicate with the host processor.
The main memory controller is also responsible for managing accesses across processors and CPUs.
In summary, DMA modules have their own processor, which will take care of the time-critical tasks for them. In virtually all systems that include DMA modules, DMA access to main memory is given higher priority than processor access to main memory. Why?
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