Criminal justice agencies most closely align with the bureaucratic management style of the organizational theories discussed in this week’s assigned reading. While the word “bureaucracy” is typically associated with most governmental agencies, criminal justice agencies are especially prone to this label.
The bureaucratization of the criminal justice system is a topic of great interest in criminology and related fields like sociology. The term “bureaucracy” has become so associated with government agencies that it’s easy to forget that it can also apply to non-governmental organizations (NGOs). However, when we think about how these agencies operate, there are certain characteristics that make them especially prone to be labeled as bureaucracies: they have formalized hierarchies and job titles; they tend toward more formal written communications than interpersonal conversations; they have formalized reporting structures; etc. In this week’s assigned reading, we’ll look at some organizational theories which discuss these kinds of bureaucratic tendencies within their own frameworks of analysis–and then contrast them against how criminal justice agencies actually behave
The bureaucratic management style of the organizational theories discussed in this week’s assigned reading. While the word “bureaucracy” is typically associated with most governmental agencies, criminal justice agencies are especially prone to this label.
The bureaucratic management style of an organization is characterized by rigid rules and procedures, red tape, and slow decision making. This type of organizational structure can also be good or bad depending on how it’s implemented: if there are few clear lines between employees’ jobs so that they don’t feel like they have much power over their workday (or if there are too many rules), then you’ve got yourself a problem—you’ll end up with a lot of busywork instead of meaningful tasks!
The functionalist perspective on criminal justice agencies is based on the idea that society is a complex system where all parts work together to achieve a common goal. This macro view of society, looking at how the parts work together to achieve a common goal, can be applied to many aspects of life and business.
In this case, it’s useful because it provides an important framework for understanding why some organizations are successful while others aren’t—and what makes them so successful (or not).
Conflict theory is a sociological theory that views society as a constant struggle between competing groups. Groups are defined by their shared interest in resources or their shared identity, and conflicts can arise when these two things are in conflict.
The concept of conflict derives from Karl Marx’s view of class warfare in which workers seek to acquire higher wages through strikes, demonstrations and other tactics intended to pressure employers into paying them more for their labor. Conflict theorists believe this model applies equally well when considering criminal justice agencies and deviance, but they may differ on how best to manage them: some view deviance as inevitable while others see it as preventable (though not necessarily easy).
Foucault’s ideas about power and knowledge are key to understanding how bureaucratic management can affect criminal justice agencies. He argues that power is not just the ability of an individual or group to control others; it’s also the way in which individuals or groups use their abilities to make decisions without having anything like full information. In other words, people with more information at their disposal have more power than those who don’t have access to all possible data points on a given issue.
In this context, Foucault defines “power” as a form of control over others: “The exercise of power implies both constraint and freedom.” Power has two main elements—constraint (the ability) and freedom (the lack thereof). Constraint can be based either on force or consent; when we’re forced into submission by force (for example), our consent isn’t part of the equation because we do not choose whether or not we submit ourselves into someone else’s domination over us. When there isn’t any coercion involved whatsoever—when someone voluntarily agrees upon something without being coerced into doing so—then they’re exercising his/her own choices freely instead!
You might be familiar with the term “critical criminology” if you’ve studied any literature or media about crime and punishment. Critical criminologists are interested in what causes crime and how it can be prevented or reduced. They believe that social inequality is one of the most important reasons behind criminal behavior, so they focus on ways to reduce poverty and improve economic opportunity for all groups in society.
Critical criminology was developed by Michel Foucault over a period of time beginning in the 1960s, when he began publishing books criticizing classical Marxism as well as traditional behavioral theories like law enforcement practices (Foucault & Hutton 1972). Through these works, he proposed new models for understanding practices like police surveillance technologies along with other forms of power relations between individuals within society at large – even though these relations may seem abstract or distant from our own lives today!
It’s not surprising that criminal justice agencies are often thought of as bureaucracies. The word “bureaucracy” is generally associated with governmental organizations, which are often referred to as “bureaus.” In the United States, the federal government has about 3 million employees; it’s hard for us to imagine a bureaucracy without so many people working within them.
But what does this mean for our understanding of criminal justice agencies? Well, like any other type of organization—and even more particularly if we’re talking about government bureaucracies—the answer depends on who you ask! Some people might say that “criminal justice” doesn’t really have anything at all in common with bureaucracy because they view these two things as being so different from each other; however, others might say otherwise (and those would probably be correct).
The bureaucratic management style of the organizational theories discussed in this week’s assigned reading. While the word “bureaucracy” is typically associated with most governmental agencies, criminal justice agencies are especially prone to this label. The above examples should help us understand why it makes sense for us to think about them as bureaucracies. If you have any questions or comments about what we said here, please let us know in the comments below!
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