What are the essential components of science that are described by Skinner

5. What are the essential components of science that are described by Skinner (there are two of them)?


What are the essential components of science that are described by Skinner


In the 1950s, psychologist B. F. Skinner developed a radical way of thinking about human behavior. He argued that human beings are motivated by rewards and punishments, and that we can change our behavior by manipulating these external stimuli. This concept is still used today in psychology and behavioral economics (the study of how people make decisions based on economic factors).

Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning is the most important element in Skinner’s science of behavior. It’s a type of learning that uses rewards and punishments to shape the behavior of organisms.

The most important thing to remember about operant conditioning is that it works best when you reward good behavior and punish bad behavior. Let’s say you want your pet dog to sit down on command, but he can’t seem to get his butt into position when called out by name (you’ll know what I mean). To help him learn this skill, all you have do is call out “Sit!” and then immediately reward him with a treat after he does so–and only after he obeys your command, mind you! This way, when he hears the word ‘Sit’ again later on down the line, he’ll be prompted by his previous experience with successively better results until eventually becoming trained enough so as not even think twice before following through with whatever order comes next time around; meanwhile remaining completely unaware of any technique behind why things might otherwise seem less than perfect every time they happen around here…

Consequences and rewards

Skinner’s view of consequences and rewards is that they are essential to human behavior. He believed that rewards and punishments can be positive or negative, tangible or intangible, immediate or delayed.

Skinner also thought that the purpose of rewards is to increase the likelihood of an action being performed again in the future. For example, if you have a class assignment due on Friday but don’t get it done because you spent all weekend playing video games with your friends instead of working on it, what would happen if someone gave you a prize as a reward for finishing this assignment? Would this help motivate people who procrastinate?

Punishment and extinction

You’ll probably have heard of punishment and extinction before. Punishment is a consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior, while extinction is the absence of a consequence.

The two concepts are opposites: they can be used together to make an experiment more powerful or weaken it depending on what you want to find out. For example: if you want to see if your dog will sit when given food after being scolded with a clicker (a device that sounds like “click” when pressed), then you could use punishment as part of this experiment by giving them something else like their favorite toy when they don’t sit down fast enough after being clicked on.

This would make sure that dogs don’t get bored waiting around for their treat because all other options fail in comparison – but it might also cause problems because some dogs may not respond well under these conditions where things aren’t going so well for them yet another time.”

This is a good way to think about science

In this lesson, you will learn how to apply some of Skinner’s concepts to the world of science. His ideas can help us better understand what really happens in our minds and bodies when we make decisions or take actions.

The first thing that we need to understand is operant conditioning–the idea that what you do has an effect on how things work out for you (i.e., your behavior affects your outcomes). In addition, there are consequences and rewards associated with doing something good or bad; these consequences help determine whether an action was rewarded or punished by others around us (e.g., parents). The key point here is that if we want something different from what happened before–like getting a better grade on a test–then our behavior needs to change itself if it does not fit with previous patterns established by our surroundings over time through reinforcement learning processes such as positive reinforcement (rewarding positive behaviors) vs negative reinforcement (rewarding negative behaviors). This means that changing one’s own behavior requires effort because there may be competing factors within oneself which could lead one towards becoming depressed instead of achieving success at every turn!


This is a good way to think about science, and it’s important to remember that there are other ways of viewing the world around us.


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