pharmacology research

You are to write a paper examining a topic regarding pharmacology research.  The research may be basic science, translational, clinical, or a combination.  Your paper should include references to empirical data and should not simply be a review of current clinical use, mechanism of action, or past history of a drug or class of drugs.  You  MUST write on the paper topic below.

Your goal is to demonstrate that you have a working understanding of the pharmacological information presented in this course and that you are able to apply that understanding to new material.

Success in communicating scientific knowledge is dependent on not only the quality of the scientific content, but also your ability to coherently put your thoughts into words and the technical aspects of spelling and grammar.  With this in mind, your grade will be based on all of these aspects.  With that said, scientific writing should be succinct and to the point.  It should not be flowery and verbose.  Your goal is to make sure your writing style does not detract from the effectiveness of the paper.  Write something that conveys your message, doesn’t have obvious grammatical mistakes, doesn’t have typos, and isn’t overtly clunky, and you should receive full points for your writing style.

Allowed Topic

Discuss rate control versus rhythm control for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF).  Define AF and its prevalence in the population.  Briefly discuss some causes (mechanisms of arrythmia formation as discussed in lecture) and risk factors of AF and then compare and contrast the concepts of rate control versus rhythm control for treatment.  Cite clinical trials research that discusses the efficacy of the two approaches. Give an example of a drug for each approach and then describe how that drug works (mechanism) to either achieve rate control or rhythm control.

Note :

· 5 Pages. This does not include the title page or references.

· The essay demonstrates that the author fully understands and has applied concepts learned in the course. Concepts are integrated into the writer’s own insights. The writer provides concluding remarks that show analysis and synthesis of ideas.

· No spelling and/or grammar mistakes.

· Cites all information obtained from other sources. Primary sources used where possible. Molecular Pharmacology citation style is used in both text and bibliography.

· Ties together information from all sources. Paper flows from one issue to the next. Author’s writing demonstrates an understanding of the relationship among material obtained from all sources.


Pharmacology research is an incredibly important field of study that has had a major impact on medical treatment and discovery. This essay will examine three topics related to pharmacology research: the ethical implications of animal testing, the role of medical trials in advancing pharmacology research, and the impact of technological advancements on pharmacology research. Each of these topics will be discussed in detail in order to provide a better understanding of the importance and complexity of pharmacology research.
Animal testing in pharmacology research has a long and controversial history. According to M Ghasemi and AR Dehpour in their 2009 article, “The Ethical Implications of Animal Testing in Pharmacology Research”, animal testing has been a part of the development of new drugs since the late 19th century. While animal testing has been beneficial in the development of new medicines, there have been ethical implications to consider. The use of animals in research requires that they are treated humanely and with care; however, there have been cases of animal abuse in research. Furthermore, animal testing has been criticized for its ineffectiveness, as results from animal tests do not always translate to successful treatments in humans. Moreover, animal testing is expensive and time consuming, so there are significant financial costs associated with it. Despite the ethical and financial implications of animal testing, it has been a necessary part of the development of new drugs. As such, it is important to consider the ethical implications of animal testing in pharmacology research and develop protocols to ensure the humane treatment of animals in research.
The role of medical trials in advancing pharmacology research is crucial and has been discussed in a variety of studies. In a 2012 paper published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, N Tandon, MK Ali, and KM Venkat Narayan discuss the effectiveness of medical trials in pharmacology research. They note that the use of medical trials has allowed for the development of new and effective drugs, which has resulted in the improvement of public health and the reduction of medical costs. Furthermore, the authors argue that medical trials can help identify potential adverse effects of drugs before they are released to the public. This is beneficial as it allows for the development of safer drugs and helps to minimize the potential risks associated with the use of new drugs. Additionally, medical trials can also help to assess the efficacy of drugs, which can ensure that patients receive the most effective treatment for their condition. Overall, medical trials are an important tool for advancing pharmacology research, and their use has been essential in the development of new and effective drugs.
In a study conducted by L Coyne, TA Merritt, BL Parmentier, RA Sharpton and other authors in 2019, the impact of technological advancements on pharmacology research was examined. Technological advancements have been a boon to pharmacology research, enabling researchers to develop more precise and powerful tools for conducting experiments. For instance, advances in gene sequencing have allowed researchers to look at many different genetic variations in order to develop new drugs. Additionally, advancements in imaging technologies have allowed researchers to observe drug molecules in action, providing insight into the underlying mechanisms of drug action. Furthermore, the development of in vitro and in vivo models of drug action has enabled researchers to study drug effects at the cellular level, providing more accurate predictions of efficacy and safety. Overall, technological advancements have had a profound impact on pharmacology research, providing researchers with the tools and resources needed to develop more effective and safer drugs.
In conclusion, pharmacology research is a complex and important field, as it provides advances in medication that can offer relief and cures for numerous health problems. While further research is needed to more deeply understand the potential effects of medications, such research is essential for improving patient care and promoting public health. With a focus on understanding the intricate details of pharmacology research, continued advances in the field are sure to be made.
Work Cited
MK Ali.”Pharmacologic prevention of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus: implications of the results of recent clinical trials in type 2 diabetes.”
M Ghasemi., AR Dehpour.”Ethical considerations in animal studies.”
“The past, present, and future of virtual reality in pharmacy education.”



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