developmental milestones

Construct a chart (or a visual of your choosing, Word table, Excel chart, etc.) of age-related developmental milestones. Theorists who MUST be included at each appropriate age level are Piaget, Kohlberg, Bandura, Vygotsky, Erikson, Mahler, and Jung. Other theorists of your choosing should also be included (minimum of three). Your visual should include:

  1. Describe the essential developmental features of each age category.
  2. Discuss concerns or issues pertinent to each age category. NOTE: Place more emphasis on the age group with which you work or aspire to work.

Use four to six scholarly resources with an APA-formatted reference page.


This essay will explore the essential developmental features of infancy and early childhood, as well as the concerns and issues of adolescence, through the theories of Piaget, Kohlberg, Bandura, Vygotsky, Erikson, Mahler, and Jung. These theorists are all highly regarded and must be included when discussing the development of a child. Additionally, three other theorists of my choosing will be discussed in order to provide a comprehensive overview of the development at each age level. The
Infancy and early childhood are essential developmental phases that shape a child’s later life. Theorists such as Piaget, Kohlberg, Bandura, Vygotsky, Erikson, Mahler, and Jung have developed theories that explain the development of children during these phases. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development states that infants and children’s cognitive abilities are developed through sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages (JG Parker et al., 2015). Kohlberg’s theory of moral development argues that children’s moral reasoning develops from preconventional, conventional, and postconventional stages (JG Parker et al., 2015). Bandura’s social learning theory states that children learn through observing others and imitating their behaviors (JG Parker et al., 2015). Vygotsky’s theory of socio-cultural development explains that children learn and develop through their interaction with the environment (JG Parker et al., 2015). Erikson’s psychosocial theory of development argues that children’s development is based on the mastery of psychosocial tasks (JG Parker et al., 2015). Mahler’s object-relations theory explains that children’s development is based on their attachment and relationship with their parents (JG Parker et al., 2015). Finally, Jung’s theory of personality development states that children’s personalities are shaped by their unconscious mind (JG Parker et al., 2015). Together, these theories provide insight into the essential developmental features of infancy and early childhood.
Adolescence is a time of transition between childhood and adulthood, and as such, it is a period of both physical and psychological transformation. It is natural for adolescents to experience a range of emotions and concerns, and it is important to understand the theories of development that help to explain these issues. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development focuses on how adolescents acquire knowledge and use it to construct their understanding of the world. According to Piaget, adolescents are in the formal operational stage, which enables them to think abstractly and draw conclusions from complex information (Forte, 2009). Kohlberg’s theory of moral development explains how adolescents make decisions with regard to right and wrong. He contends that adolescents begin to develop their own moral code based on their interactions with peers and adults (Forte, 2009). Bandura’s social learning theory emphasizes the importance of social learning in adolescence, arguing that adolescents learn by observing and imitating the behavior of adults and peers (Forte, 2009). Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory focuses on the concept of the zone of proximal development, which explains that adolescents learn best when they are provided with support from more experienced individuals (Forte, 2009). Erikson’s psychosocial theory explains how adolescents grapple with the concept of identity, and how their sense of self is formed as a result of their interactions with the environment (Forte, 2009). Mahler’s object relations theory explains how adolescents form relationships with objects and people in their environment, and how this affects their development (Forte, 2009). Finally, Jung’s psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of the unconscious mind, and how it influences adolescents’ behavior and development (Forte, 2009). Together, these theories provide a comprehensive understanding of the concerns and issues that adolescents must face as they transition into adulthood. (Forte, 2009)
Adolescence is a time of great transition, both physically and psychologically, and various theories have been developed to understand the various concerns and issues experienced during this period. Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory proposes that adolescents progress through distinct stages of cognitive development as they age, while Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning posits that adolescents are able to understand moral and ethical issues at various levels of sophistication (Forte, 2009). Albert Bandura’s social learning theory suggests that adolescents learn via imitation and observational learning, while Lev Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory proposes that adolescents learn primarily through social interaction and their environment (Forte, 2009). Erik Erikson’s psychosocial development theory argues that adolescents experience a unique set of psychological conflicts, while Margaret Mahler’s separation-individuation theory suggests that adolescents separate from their parents and engage in “individuation” (Forte, 2009). Lastly, Carl Jung’s theory of psychosocial development emphasizes the importance of understanding an individual’s thoughts and beliefs (Forte, 2009). Collectively, these theories offer an in-depth understanding of the concerns and issues experienced by adolescents during this unique period of life.
It is important for educational psychologists, counselors, and other professionals who specialize in the development and education of children, to understand the fundamental theories of child development. In order to provide the most useful intervention strategies, the theorists that MUST be included at any appropriate age level are Piaget, Kohlberg, Bandura, Vygotsky, Erikson, Mahler, and Jung. Some other theorists that should be considered and included in visuals at each age level include Chomsky’s Behaviorism, Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory and Bronfrenner’s Microsystems. At each age level, it is also important to understand and be aware of the essential developmental features of each age group such as cognitive, emotional and physical developments, as well as the pertinent concerns and issues that are present at each stage. Those involved in working with children must be equipped with the knowledge of the different age-appropriate developmental theories in order to address the needs of the individual child’s growth, as well as the needs of the the entire age group.
Work Cited
JG Parker., KH Rubin., SA Erath.”Peer relationships, child development, and adjustment: A developmental psychopathology perspective.”
JA Forte.”Teaching human development: Current theoretical deficits and a theory-enriched “Models, metaphors, and maps” remedy.”
JA Forte.”Teaching human development: Current theoretical deficits and a theory-enriched “Models, metaphors, and maps”

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