Pender’s theory of health promotion is use as a guide to delivery care and disease prevention and health maintenance


Marie Germain Case Study: 2 


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          Pender’s theory of health promotion is use as a guide to delivery care and disease prevention and health maintenance. Through Pender’s theory, we have learned that health is not the absence of disease (Masters, 2015). But with lifestyle changes, one can improve their overall health and wellness. The major components of Pender’s model concentrate on individual characteristics and experiences, the factors affecting the behavior, and behavioral outcomes (Master’s 2015). Individual characteristics and experiences include the analysis of prior related behavior, which is based on perceived benefits of action, perceived barriers of action, perceived self-efficacy, and activity related affect (Masters 2015).

           Base on Pender’s theory, the advanced nurse practitioner can use the nursing process to plan care for Mrs. Richards. The nurse will use the nursing process to care for the patient holistically, base on her symptoms, and history of hypothyroidism, depression, substance abuse, and the emotional turmoil of losing her children and husband. The best way to care for Mrs. Richard, it is imperative that different consult and referrals must be made, in order for her to get the proper help she needs to address all the health issues she is dealing with, for instance, psychologist, psychiatrist, and essentially be referred to drug rehabilitation. All the aspect of her health concerns must be dealt with, so she can function throughout life physically, psychologically and emotionally. The figure below is a Health Promotion Model with a description of all its three different components on how Mrs. Richard can be assisted.


Masters, K. (2015). Nursing Theories: a framework for professional practice (2nd ed.).

            Burlington. MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

 Priya, J. (2016). Conceptual Application of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in The Promotion

Of Adolescent Mental Health and Coping Abilities Through School Teachers      International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies (IJIRAS) Volume 3 Issue 11

Rosie Jean Louis 

Rosie Jean Louis: Case Study 2


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Based on the details of the provided case scenario, it is evident that the individual characteristics that a person displays are significant when it comes to the analysis of the health-promotion model. It is through the accurate observation of such individual characteristics that the physicians attending to such a victim will be able to have a rough idea on what diagnostic steps that they should take when it comes to the tackling of the health condition of the victim. The health promotion model thus emphasizes on the observation of the external characteristics that point towards what the patient is suffering from since this is the beginning point when it comes to treatment (Wills et al. 2019). For this case, Mrs. Richards, a 39-year-old has been severely affected by drugs and substance abuse since this must be the phenomenon that is responsible for depression that she is a victim too. It is common for drugs and substance abuse victims to suffer from depression by all standards. It is from this point that the physicians can come up with the best approach that is effective when dealing with the patient in such a condition.

The health promotion model also provides for the personal factors from a biological, physiological and cultural approach that may have contributed to the current medical or health predicament that the patient may be suffering from. This is equally an important consideration given the fact that the social-learning theory holds that people learn behavior from others based on the environment in which they are brought up. This is the reason as to why the families where parents are drugs and substance abusers will always have the immediate members suffer the same fate (Hubley & Copeman, 2018). At the same time, biological and physiological factors can also make one to develop health condition hence the need for the healthcare professionals to have such information at their disposal. For this reason, the drugs and substance addiction suffered by Mrs. Richards is likely to derive from the immediate environment within which she lived.


Hubley, J., & Copeman, J. (2018). Practical health promotion. John Wiley & Sons.

Lease, S. H., Shuman, W. A., & Gage, A. N. (2019). Incorporating traditional masculinity ideology into health promotion models: Differences for African American/Black and White men. Psychology of Men & Masculinities20(1), 128.

Wills, J., Kelly, M., & Frings, D. (2019). Nurses as role models in health promotion: Piloting the acceptability of a social marketing campaign. Journal of advanced nursing, 75(2), 423-431.

Nam, S., Jung, S., Whittemore, R., Latkin, C., Kershaw, T., Redeker, N. S., … & Vlahov, D. (2019). Social Network Structures in African American Churches: Implications for Health Promotion Programs. Journal of Urban Health, 96(2), 300-310.

Wills, J., Kelly, M., & Frings, D. (2019). Nurses as role models in health promotion: Piloting the acceptability of a social marketing campaign. Journal of advanced nursing75(

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Case Study 2: Week 11

Muller Sanon

Nursing Theory

Health Promotion Model

            The goals of the Health Promotion Model include helping the patient seek and perform health promoting behaviors which “result in improved health, enhanced functional ability and better quality of life”. It based on the assumptions that people want to regulate their behavior; they interact with their environment and, in the process, change and are changed by the environment; health care professionals influence the patient as they are part of the interpersonal environment; and in order for behavior to change, the patient must start the process of re-adapting to the environment (“Health Promotion Model”, 2011). This theory asserts that one of the driving forces of certain positive behaviors is a perceived benefit from engaging in said behaviors. According to this theory, there is a relationship between perception and reality. Positive perception of competence, self-efficacy, attitudes and emotions increase likelihood of commitment and acting out a certain behavior, especially health-promoting behavior.

            One article sought to determine the effect the Health Promotion Model had in improving nutritional behavior of overweight and obese women. The results showed that this model did improve nutritional behaviors. This model is one of the most commonly used to promote lifestyle changes and behaviors in order to improve health. The assessment of perceived benefits, barriers, self-efficacy, behavior-related affect, interpersonal influences, situational influences, and commitment to action was done. The experimental group went through three sessions. One session was about the benefits of healthy nutritional behaviors. The second session was about the barriers to healthy nutritional behaviors ways to overcome, and the third session was about ways to promote efficacy and commitment to healthy nutritional behaviors. These results of this study showed that those in the experimental group had increased positive perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and behavior-related affect. Also, results showed decreased barriers after the intervention of the sessions. Increased knowledge about barriers and the methods to overcome them increased the motivations and interpersonal influence positively. This model can positively affect the commitment and performance of health-promoting behaviors (Khodaveisi, Omidi, Farokhi & Soltanian, 2017).  

Prior Related Behavior -Assess readiness to change behavior of seeking help for substance abuse-Assess past attempts to seek help and change behavior-Encourage/reinforce strengths and positive behavior
Personal Factors -Assess positive and negative biological factors influencing change-Assess positive/negative psychological factors-Assess positive/negative socio-cultural factors
Benefits -Assess patient’s perceived benefits of cessation of substance abuse-Help reinforce or create better understanding of benefits
Barriers -Assess possible barriers to changing behaviors-Discuss how to overcome the barriers
Self-Efficacy -Assess perceived self-efficacy-Have pt attempt cessation of substance abuse-Focus on positive sensations
Activity-related Affect -Assess what pt enjoys doing-Have pt swap negative activity for positive activity-Present activity as unattractive
Interpersonal Influences -Assess pt’s social support-Involve family, friends, support system in treatment, goal setting-Refer to support group-Plan increased interaction with positive role models or sponsor for substance abuse group
Situational Influences -Present positive, attractive, safe locations for activity-Assess ties between supply of substance and pt access to it
Commitment -Assess level of commitment to following through on plans-Include pt in setting attainable, realistic goals and find ways to integrate to pt daily life-Provide education of symptoms and management of disease processes
Competing Demands and Preferences -Work with patient to develop plan to avoid competing demands-Reduce competing stimuli


Health Promotion Model. (2011). Retrieved 10 July 2018, from

Pender, N. The Health Promotion Model Retrieved 15 March 2018, from

Khodaveisi, M., Omidi, A., Farokhi, S., & Soltanian, A. (2017). The Effect of Pender’s Health Promotion Model in Improving the Nutritional Behavior of Overweight and Obese WomenPubMed Central (PMC). Retrieved 12 November 2018, from

Yindra Isaac Amador

Nursing Theory

In a nutshell, the health-promoting behavior in the case of Mrs. Richards is precisely quitting the drug and substance abuse. That is the end game in her nursing care program. To do that, however, the nurse must consider the fact that prior related behavior, that is, what is making her abuse illicit drugs is the tragic loss of her husband and children in a road accident. That is what makes up her individual characteristics and experiences. The perceived barrier is the fact that her lost family cannot be brought back to her. The nurse should, therefore, build the patient’s perceived self-efficacy by building around her a caring second family. They should keep her company and help her overcome the memories of her loved ones which are driving her into depression. This is a simultaneous invocation of interpersonal influences and breaking of the perceived barriers.

The situation which makes Mrs. Richards’ health open to the charge of deteriorating is the loneliness which envelopes her after the demise of her family. The nurse has to; therefore, put her in a situation that encourages her well-being. This is the situational influences and includes what is moral support. The nurse can achieve this by developing a semi-formal relationship with the patient. A cultural knowledge of the patient based on the fact that she is Caucasian is handy here. In all these, the nurse should focus on keeping the patient committed to the plan of setting her free from the power of illicit drugs and ultimately improve her health.


Masters, K. (2012). Nursing theories: a framework for professional practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Pender, N. J., & Pender, A. R. (1996). Health promotion in nursing practice. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange.

Planning in Health Promotion Work. (2010). doi:10.4324/9780203842522

Manuel Cabrera 


Case Study 2: Manuel M Cabrera 


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Case Study applying Health Promotion Model

The case focuses on a 39-old female that has to deal with a series of issues including hypothyroidism, depression, and substance abuse. The situation is challenging because the patient experiences psychological trauma because her husband and children passed away due to a traffic accident. The patient notes that she started to use illicit substances after the accident. It is appropriate to utilize Pander’s model because it predicts health-promoting behaviors when applied in clinical practice (Aqtam & Darawwad, 2018, p. 485). The model consists of three key dimensions focused on the patient’s individual characteristics, associated cognitions, and behavior outcome (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Pander’s Model. This figure illustrates the elements of the theory.

            The model may be utilized to develop a plan of care that would maximize the effectiveness of treatment. First of all, it is evident that a traumatic event has influenced the patient’s decision to use illicit drugs. However, it is also possible that the patient was susceptible to drug abuse because of the history of depression. Moreover, depression is also viewed as one of the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Therefore, all of the patient’s behaviors are interconnected, and depression has influenced the patient’s cognitions. It may be difficult for the patient to deal with the loss because of depression. It is appropriate to address these biological and psychologic factors and treat hypothyroidism and depression. Furthermore, it is necessary to alter interpersonal influences and communicate with the patient’s friends to establish an environment that would discourage drug abuse (Nursing Theories, n.d.). It is imperative to highlight the benefits of treatment while eliminating the barriers that make it challenging for the patient to accept changes. This approach should make it easier for the patient to commit to the plan of action. The strategy is expected to be particularly effective if the therapy helps to eliminate the symptoms of depression, and all the elements of the plan would support health-promoting behavior.


Aqtam, I., & Darawwad, M. (2018). Health Promotion Model: An integrative literature review. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 8(7), 485-503. doi:10.4236/ojn.2018.87037

Nursing Theories. (n.d.). Health Promotion Model. Retrieved from

  Week 11

                                                                                           Laura Saldivar

         The purpose of Nola Penders Health Promotion model is to help nurses to interpret the factors of health

behaviors as a basis for behavioral counseling to promote healthy lifestyles. This can be used as preventative or coincide

with the health care plan. Pender’s theory focuses on variables that impact health behavior. Evidence base practices from

nursing, psychology, and public health were placed into a model of health behavior. The model can be used to

structure nursing protocols and interventions. In practices, nurses should focus on discovering and focusing on the

variables most apparent of given health behaviors.      Pender’s model focuses on three areas: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and 

affect, and behavioral outcomes. Relating these 3 areas to our Patient begins by questioning the patient to determine

patterns of behavior to prioritize what to address first. We need an better understanding of the patient overall health state 

by gathering info regarding the diagnosis of hypothyroidism and if she has been compliant with medication. During the

initial assessment we must take into account her mental status as she has experienced a devastating trauma recently. Also,

in regards to the heroin usage, is addiction something she has struggled with throughout her lifespan, or has this recent

trauma triggered it. We must consider that any information or education may be difficult for this patient to process at this

time, and patience, and basic life needs may be priority at this time of distress. Everything else will be put in place

secondary to that.

                By assessing these major questions we can prioritize and focus on where to begin with said patient. It is the

nurses job to assist in consulting proper health care team members to ensure she has an endocrinologist, Psychiatrist,

counselor, and social worker on the case assisting in long term care as this may not be a quick fix for the patient. After the

three  areas have been addressed we can provide resources and assist the patient on getting back to the right track,

physcially, mentally and emotionally and that is what the Health Promotion Goal is, overall.


Srof, B. J., & Velsor-Friedrich, B. (2006). Health Promotion in Adolescents: A Review of Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Nursing Science Quarterly19(4), 366–373.

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