Post- David;Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the immune disorder your colleague selected.

Respond on to  two different days who selected different immune disorders and/or factors than you, in the following ways:

Share insights on how the factor you selected impacts the pathophysiology of the immune disorder your colleague selected.

Expand on your colleague’s posting by providing additional insights or contrasting perspectives based on readings and evidence.

                                                    Main Post

                            Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS):

Irritable bowel syndrome is a problem of a bowel function of the gastrointestinal tract.  IBS is one of the most common reasons for gastroenterologist consultation (Hammer & McPhee, 2019).  Irritable bowel syndrome symptoms are persistent abdominal pain, gas, bloating and with bowel disturbance; there are four subtypes of IBS: constipation (IBS-C), diarrhea (IBS-D), mixed (IBS-M), or unsubtyped IBS (IBS-U) (Kosako et al., 2018).  The incidence of IBS is higher in women; it is 1.5 to 3 times higher than men; with greater incidence in youth and middle age (Huether & McCance, 2017).

There is no known pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome and no specific biomarker for the disease (Huether & McCance, 2017).  Increasing evidence showed due to the different types of symptoms presentation of IBS that there are possibilities of correlation to altered gut microflora, gut immune responses, neuroendocrine cell function, the brain-gut axis, genetic predisposition and epigenetic factor (Huether & McCance, 2017). Despite the global frequency and disease burden of IBS, its underlying pathophysiology remains unclear (Ng QX et al., 2018).  Inflammation may provide a pathogenic role in IBS; research has shown the occurrence of mucosal irritation at the microscopic and molecular degree in IBS (Ng QX et al., 2018).  It also been reported that considerable overlaps between IBS and inflammatory bowel disease (Ng QX, et al., 2018). 


Psoriasis is one of the common issues of chronic skin inflammation. The prevalence of psoriasis affects both sexes and in most ethnic groups (Huether & McCance, 2017).  Most common occurrences are in people in their 30s, but it can also happen soon after birth (Hammer & McPhee, 2019).  Familial history of psoriasis is common, and the genetic process is complicated (Huether & McCance, 2017). 

The inflammatory dynamic of psoriasis involves the multifaceted interaction between macrophages, fibroblasts, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, T helper cells, and regulatory T cells. The influence of these immune cells can signal the secretion of multiple inflammatory mediators such as interferon, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and various cytokines including interleukin 12, 23 and 17 (Huether & McCance, 2017).  

Maladaptive consequences of IBS and psoriasis:

Skin diseases, including psoriasis, appeared to impact a substantial adverse effect on patients’ health-related quality of life (Jung et al., 2018).  Individuals with psoriasis report that the illness has various physical and mental implications, such as social isolation and stress, depression, shame, and anxiety (Jung et al., 2018).

Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been found to have a significant reduction in quality of life (Arluwaili, et al., 2018). People with IBS report that the disease broth substantial psychosocial consequences such as social lifestyle and activities, emotional, food, and diet interest (Arluwaili, et al., 2018).


Alruwaili, A. M. M., Albalawi, K. S. A., Alfuhigi, F. R. D., Alruwaili, A. F., Altaleb, B. A. A., & Aljarid, J. S. (2018). Effects of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) on the health-related quality of Life among Saudi Males at Al-Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine73(4), 6581–6585. Retrieved from

Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.

Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.

Jung, S., Lee, S.-M., Suh, D., Shin, H. T., & Suh, D.-C. (2018). The association of socioeconomic and clinical characteristics with health-related quality of life in patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional study. Health And Quality Of Life Outcomes16(1), 180.

Kosako, M., Akiho, H., Miwa, H., Kanazawa, M., & Fukudo, S. (2018). Impact of symptoms by gender and age in Japanese subjects with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C): A large population-based internet survey. BioPsychoSocial Medicine12.

Ng QX, Soh AYS, Loke W, Lim DY, & Yeo WS. (2018). The role of inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Journal of Inflammation Research, 345. Retrieved from


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