Respond using one or more of the following approaches:

Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.

Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden Library.

Note: the answer of this post should be in a positive way 

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In the past, nursing educational programs did not focus on the undertakings of evidence-based research, the integration into practice settings, or the mere skills to research appropriately (Tagney & Haines, 2009). However, Tagney and Haines (2009) explain that the integration of evidence-based research is a gap that needs to be addressed among health care professionals that require improvements to research and critical appraisal skills and the ability to conduct a research project. Polit and Beck (2017) state that research can commence by the construction of a theory and a person who can interconnect the evidence and take note of themes.


Concerning research, a theory can be defined as two ideas that are associated or related which places the intentions of a theory to explain the relationship between the two ideas to describe a single phenomenon (Polit & Beck, 2019). Often, theories are descriptive, as they are used to describe individual characteristics of the subject of interest by observation of common features (Polit & Beck, 2017). Polit and Beck (2017) state that descriptive theory is occasionally an indication or suggestion to explanatory or predictive theories. 

The Theory of Planned Behavior gives understanding of how people behave and why from a phycological standpoint (Polit & Beck, 2017). When someone is unstable from anger their behavior can be determined by their intention to act on the behavior (Polit & Beck, 2017). Collectively, the personal attitudes, the social norms, and how easy or difficult the behavior is to partake in all relate to the intention to perform or not to perform the behavior (Polit & Beck, 2017). Notably, the perceived importance of the personal attitudes, social norms, and the ability to follow through on the intention of the behavior are different through different scenarios and situations (Polit & Beck, 2017). Simply put, a theory is an explanation of how two phenomena are interconnected or linked (Laureate Education, 2012). 

Research Article Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

Chang-Chiao, Tsui-Ping, Bih-O., and Chia-Chi (2015) put forth a cross-sectional study that consisted of 548 nurses that worked on general hospital wards and intensive care units with an aim to study how nurses’ attitudes and intentions affected medication administration errors and the reporting of the errors. The theory of planned behavior was used as the as the framework for this study. Chang-Chiao et al. (2015) explain that medication administration errors reporting is a professional obligation where the clinicians consider behaviors before reporting. The barrier of medication administration errors reporting behaviors was investigated as this issue still occurs in todays practices. 

Many obstacles around reporting errors exist such as leadership styles on the unit, unfriendly work environments, lack of knowledge of the importance of reporting errors, and nursing shortages (Chang-Chiao et al, 2015). According to the theory of planned behavior, beliefs and attitudes are the fundamental determinants of behaviors and to change or influence the behavior the attitudes and beliefs need to be addressed (Chang-Chiao et al, 2015). To tackle this, intentions need to be changed via attitudinal beliefs, control beliefs, and normative beliefs.

In this study the biggest factor that played a role of intentions towards not reporting medication errors were the attitudes of nurse managers and coworkers which involved the nurse to feel blame which consequently influenced their own attitude to not report (Chang-Chiao et al, 2015). Thus, the conclusion is that the intent of reporting errors is concerned with patient safety and not blame and that there should be increased awareness as to why errors need to be reported to change the intent and the nurses’ belief systems (Chang-Chiao et al, 2015).

How the Theory Provides Structure and Value to the Research Study 

The theory provided structure to this study because of the investigated underpinnings around the nurses’ behaviors, attitudes, and intentions (Polit & Beck, 2017). The relationship between the intent to choose to not report medication errors and the perceptions used provided the framework for the hypothesis of fear of the manager and coworkers to place blame and to a conclusion to increase education around patient safety to change nurses’ beliefs around subjective norms of the unit (Polit & Beck, 2017). The theory provided has given a valuable framework by contribution of a starting point for the researchers and a guide to follow through to a logical conclusion.


Chang-Chiao, H., Tsui-Ping, C., Bih-O, L., & Chia-Chi, H. (2015). Nurses’ Attitude and intention of Medication Administration Error Reporting. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25(3-4). Retrieved from the Walden University Library database.

Laureate Education (Producer). (2012). Selecting a Framework. Baltimore, MD: Author. 

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.

Tageny, J., & Haines. C. (2009). Using Evidence-Based Practice to Address Gaps in Nursing Knowledge. British Journal of Nursing, 18(8), 484-489. Retrieved from using one or more of the following approaches:

Ask a probing question, substantiated with additional background information, and evidence.

Share an insight from having read your colleagues’ postings, synthesizing the information to provide new perspectives.

Offer and support an alternative perspective using readings from the classroom or from your own review of the literature in the Walden Library.


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