preparedness & Disaster Mgmt



Public Health Management of Terrorism in San Diego

National University

COH 440: Preparedness & Disaster Mgmt


San Diego is one of the City of the California. It is located on the coastal of Pacific Ocean which is southern California. It is approximately 120 miles south of the Los Angeles and immediately adjacent to Mexico border. Population wise, it is estimate to have 1.5 Million people. San Diego is the eight-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California. Apart from that the city is part of San Diego-Tijuana Conurbation which is known for the trans-border agglomeration amongst the US and Mexico. Climatically, the city is mild thought out the year and it has also natural deep-water and beaches. Recently it emerged as a healthcare and also biotechnology development centre.

The city is also known for the economic centre of the religion. Presence of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). From the above attribute of the city at times it is impossible to create a disaster management plan for every natural or man-made disaster. The state department therefore has recommended for the creation of strategic planning and this has been incorporated by other cities within California. San Diego is one of the city which has adopted this method when implementing disaster plan. Due this, every city has adopted its own hazard and vulnerability analysis using the assessment tool to identify the hazard and in terms of the severity specific hazard is focused whether natural occurring, technologic or human-related events and events involving hazardous materials.

Hazard and vulnerability Analysis

From the analysis report performed for San Diego using Kaiser (HVA template) it showed that the three hazardous material had highest severity; the first was terrorism and radiologic with 56%, second was small causality Hazmat with 50% and third was chemical exposure, external with 44%. From the description of San Diego city geographical location which is along the coastal of Pacific Ocean and border of Mexico, it is understandable to the above risks. From the analysis, it true that terrorism is one of the major risk associate with terrorist which are either on the economic, political or religious gain. The rate which terrorism occur in the San Diego city is alarming and that is why there is an army within the city. This was to make sure that the city is protected against any terrorist. On 1st Oct there was a shooting in Las Vegas which killed 58 people including San Diego Attorney. Additionally there was 851 people who were injured at Country-music festival in San Diego City. This is approve that terrorism is one of the major hazard affecting the city. From our analysis, there was also tragedy in Nevada which followed a suicide-bombing that resulted to 22 people killed at vocal start Ariana in 2017. Due to increased incidence of insecurity the strategic plan will enable to reduce such incidence and restore safety among the people in San Diego city and its surrounding.

What is Terrorism? Terrorism is defined as unlawful use of violence and also intimidation against others in the aim of getting political or personal beneficiary. The context in which terrorism happens both domestic or internationally can be linked to personal aims of the terrorist. They are different factors which contribute to terrorism, they include political heresy, joblessness which encourage youths in joining terrorist group (Jarvis, 2019). Other factors includes social factors and lastly religion. Some of the motives which are associated with terrorism include; separatist- they are known to exist from political autonomy and also religious freedom or domination. Ethnocentric is also one of the motives- the characteristic include promote the attitude that particular in a superior since it is based on the ethnicity background. Nationalistic- which is based on the loyalty and devotion to a nation and the national consciousness place one nation’s culture to another (Jarvis, 2019). Lastly is the revolutionary which is dedicated to the overthrow of an established order and replacing governance with new political and also social structure.

They are different types of terrorism. Example include; state-sponsored terrorism, dissent terrorism, religious terrorism and criminal terrorism. From the above, religious terrorism is the worst and it is unpredictable (Jarvis, 2019). Therefore, the main ways to prevent it from occurring is by preaching unity among believers. Terrorism has affected the economy of the city since most people has seen the city as one of the unsaved place. Despite the city has good harbour which attract tourist, the fear of the being attack has created fears among people. For any city to grow and realize its achievement, the safety is one of the key issue. If the security is not taken into consideration then people will fear to invest. San Diego is a big city and if security is not ensured then there is a high chance of being attacked.

The city being on the border between US and Mexico is another challenge. This therefore demand the state to be vigilant when comes to border security. People coming in US as refugees are to be screened and ensure they do not carry weapons. When comes to issue of borders, President Trump championed for creating walls to separate US and Mexico. Maybe this move was in relation to create security among its people.

There are many cases of terrorism which have been reported in San Diego. According to the The City of San Diego Police Department, terrorism and activities in relation to terrorism has increased in the city. This has caused panic among people hence affected trade, tourism, economic and education sector within the city. It has also caused to deaths and injuries among people. This hazard therefore teaches us a lesson on the importance of being prepared for the occurrence of any other terrorism to ensure the safety of the citizen is not compromised and also does not create condition which at the end might affect the city in terms of its daily activities such as trade, education, research, tourism among other activities which are known for the San Diego.

Goal Statement

To provide for constant security and quality care of the San Diego Citizen during terrorist attack in terms of effectiveness, efficient emergence, preparedness, response, management, recovery and mitigation to avoid loss of life and damage of priority.


Public awareness is the major concern. The public should be sensitized on terrorism. National Terrorism Advisory System (NTAS) should be in front-line in carrying public awareness as far as terrorism is concerned. This will enable people to be vigilant and report any incidence that might result to terrorism to the police department. The police should give out emergency number to the public upon which they are allowed to report any miscellouness concern. This will enable police and Anti-Terrorist police department to arrest personnel responsible before the occurrence of the attack.

Second objective is to establish and publish guidelines to the public for the pre-terrorism preparedness which include basic education on what to do during terrorist attack. The police will be able to work with other personnel in an effort to respond effectively to the attack. One of the important phase is the recovery phase which enables the public to act effectively to the any attack or report any suspected people to the local authority. This will be helpful in managing the any attack which might happen.

Ecological strategy and Emergency planning model

For any hazardous either man-made or natural, it is important to have plan in emergency preparedness for the effective and dependable response. According to Department of Homeland Security, foreign terrorist organisation continues to exploit using the internet therefore department should encourage those who observe suspicious activity to report it to the law enforcement to be prepared for the security threats. Another way of preparedness is use of mobile application to assist. According to Centre of Disease Control, the application provide conciouconscious and up-date information healthcare in the preparedness and response of the management of injuries resulting from the terrorist bombing attack. Third strategy of preparedness involving reporting suspicious activities. Avoiding to FBI and Department of Homeland Security report of suspicious individual who are linked to terrorism provide venue for the police to plan preparedness in terms of preventing the attack.

In the wake of planning a catastrophe readiness plan, a crisis response plan is essential to take developments after the crisis name for fear based oppression. It is the squeezing reaction to a crisis; it gives quick help to caution influenced territories or gatherings. Likewise, it recognizes capacity crisis dangers through hazard assessment. Moreover, it decides the kind of help is needed in a crisis situation, before sending the essential responders or gadget. Every influenced gathering should be cautioned to live inside to counteract likewise harm. At some point or another, explore the majority of the assets accessible to balance out the occurrence, which incorporates labour, apparatus and device, and structures. Likewise, have a viable and green correspondence with the majority of the open crisis administrations which incorporate the law authorization, crisis clinical administrations and flame branch to have a higher skill roughly their reaction time to the psychological oppressor. Guarantee that every one of the names and contact quantities of the essential thing staff are seen inside the crisis reaction plan. The guideline authorization will actualize safety efforts. Coordination with stand-out associations swarm control, look for and salvage and protect harmony and request to counteract plundering. Local groups of fire-fighters have a central position in all fiascos; besides granting medical clinic treatment, what’s more they help in hunt and salvage, hand perilous materials, tolerant conveyance and directions with unmistakable organizations. For crisis restorative contributions, CPR or First asset work force and other instructed volunteers will offer first valuable asset medications, look for and salvage, better medicinal consideration and transportation exploited people than transient sanctuaries or therapeutic organization. They likewise work eagerly with the firemen in treating and transporting sufferers. People on call will help the exploited people to quiet the situation, help them with their worries and activation (Galls weblog, 2011). Moreover, a departure plan is required as a feature of the response intend to coordinate the influenced individuals in positive gatherings and offer them a more secure area over the span of the crisis. To procure an a triumph crisis Recovery phase

It involve restoring action which are caused by the hazard. It is one of the difficult phase since it involving restoring the life of the victims to its minimal normal function. Recovery phase therefore require the help of the state and local government and other agencies to work together to assist the victims. Some of the help include; damage assessment, reassessment of the emergency plan, financial aid, for death victims the government can big role in paying for the burial. Personal and community also play a big role in this phase for instance able to come up with programs which are in line to foster and help the victims who are affected by the terrorist attack.

Another phase of emergency management is mitigation. Relief determines the measures that can limit the harming impacts of ice storm and different catastrophes. It recognizes all perils and hazard in the territory. Hazard investigation gives a ground to alleviation estimates such figuring construction regulations, development obstructions and zone necessities. It assembles safe condition by limiting property and foundation harm and diminishing death toll. A fundamental case of a relief program is the structure measures acknowledged by 20,000 networks everywhere throughout the country. The nation is sparing around more than 1 billion dollars yearly in aversion of flood harms because of alleviation programs.

Emergency Management

Emergency management is the creation of plans in preventing and reducing injuries before and after an event. There are four phases of emergency management, preparedness, response, recover, and mitigation. There is a protocol for procedures that planners achieve through coordination and integration of plans across all levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals and families (FEMA, 2010). FEMA has conducted community-based planning that also involves community leaders and the private sector in the planning process to engage a whole community by using a planning process that represents the actual population in the community (FEMA, 2010). Being prepared for a disaster and major incidents can identify operational assumptions of threats and hazards, get resource demands, prioritize plans, arrange planning efforts to support a community, and most importantly respond to the event for recovery (FEMA, 2010). Developing to integrate and synchronize efforts across all levels of government can very well protect and prevent major efforts.

San Diego city should have emergency management in place. Terrorism is unpredictable hazard. According to the NTSA emergency management will be able to save the lives of people. Despite it does not occur frequently, it is better to have a plan on which to be just prepared for it. This emergency management plan will be important to reduce the number of causalities. Some of the action which should be taken include rapid response to the emergency. This is a lesson learnt from the recent terrorist attack which resulted to approximately 22 people dead. In additional to that, the emergency plan will provide a platform on which to identify lessons and strength to be sustained and also weakness that need to be corrected in the case when terrorist attack occurs unpredictable.

National Terrorism Advisory System together with San Diego Police Department will be on suvilenace to ensure people are protected both internal and through use of the online attack which the terrorist uses to spread their attack on the city. In conclusion, the safety of people is the first priority therefore in any damage or terrorist attack, the emergency plan should strive to save people’s lives


In response to the surge, several strategies and tools are used to assist in the development and implementation of the plan. A comprehensive surge plan is essential for reacting to a disaster event. According to the National Association of Public Hospitals and Health Systems, “surge capacity refers to the coordination of supplies, structure, and most importantly, staffing” (National Association, 2007). Having an adequate number of hospital workers and volunteers affect the number of operational beds available and, ultimately, the amount of patients that can be cared for during an emergency (National Association, 2007). During an emergency, hospital receive more patients than they can handle, therefore need to be prepared. During an ice storm power outages are likely to occur.

Special planning consideration

Special plan involve use of the strategies to minimize loss of live. They include; providing basic education on the severity of the hazard and in this perspective is the terrorist. The education should be in accordance to the OSHA protocol. Other consideration include the making sure the police and other agencies have required equipment which will help and enable them to act on the terrorist effectively. At different time frame the emergency of the victims are always compromised. The rate at which people are saved in the case when this occur are minimal. The chance can be increased when special planning are implement and executed as the emergency plan protocol.


It is basic to survey our application by means of strategy, result, and effect suppositions. The reason for assessment is to guarantee that our applications destinations were pleasantly executed as assumed, to tune improvement, and to degree our application viability. Our method assessment will make inquiries which incorporate where scholarly preparing for representatives been directed? Has the open been made conscious of conceivable psychological militant? What’s more, highlight they been learned on pre-psychological oppressor training and out of entryways visit? All through our result assessment we can make inquiries, for example, through representative training on flotsam and jetsam disposal all through ice storms where labourers bound to wear their PPE to keep away from damage? Did execution of preparing on fear monger guidance lower dreariness? at last, sooner or later of effect evaluation we will ask did The San Diego mission improve the material and precise status for the town of San Diego to give persevered transporter and magnificent of consideration. Did the arrangement lower bleakness and property harm? The San Diego task might be analysed and endeavoured in a total scale exercise, however until the accompanying ice tropical storm hits the city of San Diego an entire assessment of our arrangement is uncertain.


San Diego is the Second-largest city in California and Eight-largest city In US. Over period it has experienced terrorist attack which has affected the city in terms of economic development one of the goal for this strategic plan is to reduce and injury, morbidity and property damage caused by storm. I believe that through this emergency preparedness strategic plan the positive impact will be realized as far as terrorism is concerned. We hope the city will benefit in managing terrorism and other hazardous which affects the city and its environment.


Developing the Emergency Response Plan. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Disaster Emergency Agencies. (2016). Retrieved from

FEMA (2010, November). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans: Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101 Version 2.0

Jarvis, L. (2019). Terrorism, counter-terrorism, and critique: opportunities, examples, and implications. Critical Studies On Terrorism, 1-20.

Alvarez, A., Chaudhari, A., & Schoenhoff, E. (2012). San Diego Highlights [EMBC 2012: San Diego]. IEEE Pulse, 3(4), 12-13.


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